Impact of letermovir prophylaxis in CMV reactivation and disease after allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a real-world, observational study

Brusosa M, Ruiz S, Monge I, Solano MT, Rosiñol L, Esteve J, Carreras E, Marcos MÁ, Riu G, Carcelero E, Martinez C, Fernández-Avilés F, Rovira M, Suárez-Lledó M, Salas MQ.

Ann Hematol

Letermovir for CMV prevention in CMV-seropositive adults undergoing allo-HCT was implemented at our program in 2021. This study investigates the results from the use of letermovir. The study includes all the 140 CMV-seropositive patients who underwent an allo-HCT during the years 2020, 2021, and 2022 at our institution. Thirty-eight (27.4%) of these patients received letermovir, administered from day + 7 to day + 100 and restarted if patients were on treatment with steroids. The day + 180 and 1-year cumulative incidences of CMV reactivation were 5.3% and 12.1% for patients who received letermovir and 52.9% and 53.9% for those who did not (P < 0.001) (HR 0.19, P < 0.001). Four (10.5%) of these thirty-eight patients had a CMV reactivation, but only 2 (5.3%) cases occurred during the administration of letermovir. During the first year after allo-HCT, 13 (9.2%) patients had CMV disease; the day + 180 and 1-year cumulative incidences were 2.6% and 6.0% for patients who received letermovir and 9.9% and 12.3% for those who did not (P = 0.254) (HR 1.01, P = 0.458). Two (4.2%) of the patients included in the letermovir group had CMV disease, but both of them after letermovir discontinuation. Letermovir induced a protective effect on CMV reactivation risk, but its use was not associated with a significant reduction of CMV disease. The fact that the CMV disease in patients who received letermovir occurred after the discontinuation of the drug, questions whether CMV prophylaxis should be used in patients with high risk for CMV reactivation or disease.

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