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Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide and Tacrolimus for GVHD Prevention Allo-HCT from HLA-Matched Donors Generates more Advantages than Limitations

Salas MQ, Pedraza A, Charry P, Suárez-Lledó M, Rodríguez-Lobato LG, Brusosa M, Solano MT, Serrahima A, Nomdedeu M, Cid J, Lozano M, Arcarons J, de Llobet N, Rosiñol L, Esteve J, Urbano-Ispizua Á, Carreras E, Fernández-Avilés F, Rovira M, Martinez C.

TRANSPL CELL THER

This study compared the efficacy of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) and tacrolimus (Tac) versus other regimens in 272 adults undergoing peripheral blood (PB) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from HLA-matched donors. Of these 272 patients, 95 (34.9%) received PTCy/Tac. The times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were longer in the PTCy/Tac group (20 days versus 16 days for neutrophils and 19 days versus 12 days for platelets). The day +30 cumulative incidence (CuI) of bacterial bloodstream infection was higher in the PTCy/Tac group (43.2% versus 13.0%; P < .001). The CuIs of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) at day +180 were 14.7% and 4.2%, and the CuI of moderate/severe cGVHD at 2 years was 2.4% in the PTCy/Tac group and 41.8% (hazard ratio [HR], .29; P < .001), 15.8%, (HR, .24; P = .007), and 47.0% (HR, .05; P < .001), respectively, in the no-PTCy group. The duration of immunosuppression was shorter in patients receiving PTCy/Tac (6.2 months versus 9.0 months; P < .001). PTCy/Tac patients had higher OS (2 years: 74.3% versus 60.9%; HR, .54; P = .012), lower NRM (2 years: 8.6% versus 15.8%; HR, .54; P = .11), comparable CuI of relapse (2 years: 26.0% versus 24.4%; HR, 1.03; P = .89), and higher GRFS (2 years: 59.1% versus 16.7%; HR, .32; P < .001). Using PTCy/Tac in HLA-matched PB allo-HCT improved transplantation outcomes at out institution compared with previous prophylactic regimens, including a higher probability of survival despite more delayed engraftment and a higher rate of bacterial infection.

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