GAPDH enhances the aggressiveness and the vascularization of non-Hodgkin's B lymphomas via NF-κB-dependent induction of HIF-1α

Chiche J, Pommier S, Beneteau M, Mondragón L, Meynet O, Zunino B, Mouchotte A, Verhoeyen E, Guyot M, Pagès G, Mounier N, Imbert V, Colosetti P, Goncalvès D, Marchetti S, Brière J, Carles M, Thieblemont C, Ricci JE.


Deregulated expression of glycolytic enzymes contributes not only to the increased energy demands of transformed cells but also has non-glycolytic roles in tumors. However, the contribution of these non-glycolytic functions in tumor progression remains poorly defined. Here, we show that elevated expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), but not of other glycolytic enzymes tested, increased aggressiveness and vascularization of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Elevated GAPDH expression was found to promote nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation via binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-2 (TRAF2), enhancing the transcription and the activity of hypoxia-inducing factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha). Consistent with this, inactive mutants of GAPDH failed to bind TRAF2, enhance HIF-1 activity or promote lymphomagenesis. Furthermore, elevated expression of gapdh mRNA in biopsies from diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients correlated with high levels of hif-1 alpha, vegf-alpha, nfkbia mRNA and CD31 staining. Collectively, these data indicate that deregulated GAPDH expression promotes NF-kappa B-dependent induction of HIF-1 alpha and has a key role in lymphoma vascularization and aggressiveness.

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