Se han encontrado 9 publicaciones con los criterios indicados.
Cuartero S, Stik G, Stadhouders R
Three-dimensional genome organization in immune cell fate and function.
Nat Rev Immunol20 Sep 2022, . Epub 20 Sep 2022
Immune cell development and activation demand the precise and coordinated control of transcriptional programmes. Three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome has emerged as an important regulator of chromatin state, transcriptional activity and cell identity by facilitating or impeding long-range genomic interactions among regulatory elements and genes. Chromatin folding thus enables cell type-specific and stimulus-specific transcriptional responses to extracellular signals, which are essential for the control of immune cell fate, for inflammatory responses and for generating a diverse repertoire of antigen receptor specificities. Here, we review recent findings connecting 3D genome organization to the control of immune cell differentiation and function, and discuss how alterations in genome folding may lead to immune dysfunction and malignancy.
Plana-Carmona M, Stik G, Bulteau R, Segura-Morales C, Alcázar N, Wyatt CDR, Klonizakis A, de Andrés-Aguayo L, Gasnier M, Tian TV, Torcal Garcia G, Vila-Casadesús M, Plachta N, Serrano M, Francesconi M, Graf T
The trophectoderm acts as a niche for the inner cell mass through C/EBPα-regulated IL-6 signaling.
Stem Cell Reports13 Sep 2022, 17(9)1991-2004. Epub 11 Ago 2022
IL-6 has been shown to be required for somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, how Il6 expression is regulated and whether it plays a role during embryo development remains unknown. Here, we describe that IL-6 is necessary for C/EBPα-enhanced reprogramming of B cells into iPSCs but not for B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation. C/EBPα overexpression activates both Il6 and Il6ra genes in B cells and in PSCs. In embryo development, Cebpa is enriched in the trophectoderm of blastocysts together with Il6, while Il6ra is mostly expressed in the inner cell mass (ICM). In addition, Il6 expression in blastocysts requires Cebpa. Blastocysts secrete IL-6 and neutralization of the cytokine delays the morula to blastocyst transition. The observed requirement of C/EBPα-regulated IL-6 signaling for pluripotency during somatic cell reprogramming thus recapitulates a physiologic mechanism in which the trophectoderm acts as niche for the ICM through the secretion of IL-6.
Stikker BS, Stik G, van Ouwerkerk AF, Trap L, Spicuglia S, Hendriks RW, Stadhouders R
Severe COVID-19-associated variants linked to chemokine receptor gene control in monocytes and macrophages.
Genome Biol14 Abr 2022, 23(1)96. Epub 14 Abr 2022
Genome-wide association studies have identified 3p21.31 as the main risk locus for severe COVID-19, although underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We perform an epigenomic dissection of 3p21.31, identifying a CTCF-dependent tissue-specific 3D regulatory chromatin hub that controls the activity of several chemokine receptor genes. Risk SNPs colocalize with regulatory elements and are linked to increased expression of CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 in monocytes and macrophages. As excessive organ infiltration of inflammatory monocytes and macrophages is a hallmark of severe COVID-19, our findings provide a rationale for the genetic association of 3p21.31 variants with elevated risk of hospitalization upon SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Soochit W, Sleutels F, Stik G, Bartkuhn M, Basu S, Hernandez SC, Merzouk S, Vidal E, Boers R, Boers J, van der Reijden M, Geverts B, van Cappellen WA, van den Hout M, Ozgur Z, van IJcken WFJ, Gribnau J, Renkawitz R, Graf T, Houtsmuller A, Grosveld F, Stadhouders R, Galjart N
CTCF chromatin residence time controls three-dimensional genome organization, gene expression and DNA methylation in pluripotent cells.
The 11 zinc finger (ZF) protein CTCF regulates topologically associating domain formation and transcription through selective binding to thousands of genomic sites. Here, we replaced endogenous CTCF in mouse embryonic stem cells with green-fluorescent-protein-tagged wild-type or mutant proteins lacking individual ZFs to identify additional determinants of CTCF positioning and function. While ZF1 and ZF8-ZF11 are not essential for cell survival, ZF8 deletion strikingly increases the DNA binding off-rate of mutant CTCF, resulting in reduced CTCF chromatin residence time. Loss of ZF8 results in widespread weakening of topologically associating domains, aberrant gene expression and increased genome-wide DNA methylation. Thus, important chromatin-templated processes rely on accurate CTCF chromatin residence time, which we propose depends on local sequence and chromatin context as well as global CTCF protein concentration.
Evidence for additive and synergistic action of mammalian enhancers during cell fate determination.
Elife26 Mar 2021, 10 . Epub 26 Mar 2021
Enhancer activity drives cell differentiation and cell fate determination, but it remains unclear how enhancers cooperate during these processes. Here we investigate enhancer cooperation during transdifferentiation of human leukemia B-cells to macrophages. Putative enhancers are established by binding of the pioneer factor C/EBPα followed by chromatin opening and enhancer RNA (eRNA) synthesis from H3K4-monomethylated regions. Using eRNA synthesis as a proxy for enhancer activity, we find that most putative enhancers cooperate in an additive way to regulate transcription of assigned target genes. However, transcription from 136 target genes depends exponentially on the summed activity of its putative paired enhancers, indicating that these enhancers cooperate synergistically. The target genes are cell type-specific, suggesting that enhancer synergy can contribute to cell fate determination. Enhancer synergy appears to depend on cell type-specific transcription factors, and such interacting enhancers are not predicted from occupancy or accessibility data that are used to detect superenhancers.
Identification of Enhancer-Promoter Contacts in Embryoid Bodies by Quantitative Chromosome Conformation Capture (4C).
J Vis Exp29 Abr 2020, (158) . Epub 29 Abr 2020
During mammalian development, cell fates are determined through the establishment of regulatory networks that define the specificity, timing, and spatial patterns of gene expression. Embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from pluripotent stem cells have been a popular model to study the differentiation of the main three germ layers and to define regulatory circuits during cell fate specification. Although it is well-known that tissue-specific enhancers play an important role in these networks by interacting with promoters, assigning them to their relevant target genes still remains challenging. To make this possible, quantitative approaches are needed to study enhancer-promoter contacts and their dynamics during development. Here, we adapted a 4C method to define enhancers and their contacts with cognate promoters in the EB differentiation model. The method uses frequently cutting restriction enzymes, sonication, and a nested-ligation-mediated PCR protocol compatible with commercial DNA library preparation kits. Subsequently, the 4C libraries are subjected to high-throughput sequencing and analyzed bioinformatically, allowing detection and quantification of all sequences that have contacts with a chosen promoter. The resulting sequencing data can also be used to gain information about the dynamics of enhancer-promoter contacts during differentiation. The technique described for the EB differentiation model is easy to implement.
Tian TV, Di Stefano B, Stik G, Vila-Casadesús M, Sardina JL, Vidal E, Dasti A, Segura-Morales C, De Andrés-Aguayo L, Gómez A, Goldmann J, Jaenisch R, Graf T
Whsc1 links pluripotency exit with mesendoderm specification.
Nat Cell BiolJul 2019, 21(7)824-834. Epub 24 Jun 2019
How pluripotent stem cells differentiate into the main germ layers is a key question of developmental biology. Here, we show that the chromatin-related factor Whsc1 (also known as Nsd2 and MMSET) has a dual role in pluripotency exit and germ layer specification of embryonic stem cells. On induction of differentiation, a proportion of Whsc1-depleted embryonic stem cells remain entrapped in a pluripotent state and fail to form mesendoderm, although they are still capable of generating neuroectoderm. These functions of Whsc1 are independent of its methyltransferase activity. Whsc1 binds to enhancers of the mesendodermal regulators Gata4, T (Brachyury), Gata6 and Foxa2, together with Brd4, and activates the expression of these genes. Depleting each of these regulators also delays pluripotency exit, suggesting that they mediate the effects observed with Whsc1. Our data indicate that Whsc1 links silencing of the pluripotency regulatory network with activation of mesendoderm lineages.