Found 9 publicacions matching the indicated search criteria.
Cuartero S, Stik G, Stadhouders R
Three-dimensional genome organization in immune cell fate and function.
Nat Rev Immunol20 Sep 2022, . Epub 20 Sep 2022
Immune cell development and activation demand the precise and coordinated control of transcriptional programmes. Three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome has emerged as an important regulator of chromatin state, transcriptional activity and cell identity by facilitating or impeding long-range genomic interactions among regulatory elements and genes. Chromatin folding thus enables cell type-specific and stimulus-specific transcriptional responses to extracellular signals, which are essential for the control of immune cell fate, for inflammatory responses and for generating a diverse repertoire of antigen receptor specificities. Here, we review recent findings connecting 3D genome organization to the control of immune cell differentiation and function, and discuss how alterations in genome folding may lead to immune dysfunction and malignancy.
Innate immune responses rely on inducible gene expression programmes which, in contrast to steady-state transcription, are highly dependent on cohesin. Here we address transcriptional parameters underlying this cohesin-dependence by single-molecule RNA-FISH and single-cell RNA-sequencing. We show that inducible innate immune genes are regulated predominantly by an increase in the probability of active transcription, and that probabilities of enhancer and promoter transcription are coordinated. Cohesin has no major impact on the fraction of transcribed inducible enhancers, or the number of mature mRNAs produced per transcribing cell. Cohesin is, however, required for coupling the probabilities of enhancer and promoter transcription. Enhancer-promoter coupling may not be explained by spatial proximity alone, and at the model locus Il12b can be disrupted by selective inhibition of the cohesinopathy-associated BET bromodomain BD2. Our data identify discrete steps in enhancer-mediated inducible gene expression that differ in cohesin-dependence, and suggest that cohesin and BD2 may act on shared pathways.
The Mutational Landscape of Myeloid Leukaemia in Down Syndrome.
Cancers (Basel)18 Aug 2021, 13(16) . Epub 18 Aug 2021
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are particularly prone to haematopoietic disorders. Paediatric myeloid malignancies in DS occur at an unusually high frequency and generally follow a well-defined stepwise clinical evolution. First, the acquisition of mutations in the GATA1 transcription factor gives rise to a transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) in DS newborns. While this condition spontaneously resolves in most cases, some clones can acquire additional mutations, which trigger myeloid leukaemia of Down syndrome (ML-DS). These secondary mutations are predominantly found in chromatin and epigenetic regulators-such as cohesin,
Towards a Better Understanding of Cohesin Mutations in AML.
Front Oncol9 Sep 2019, 9867.
Classical driver mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) typically affect regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The selective advantage of increased proliferation, improved survival, and reduced differentiation on leukemia progression is immediately obvious. Recent large-scale sequencing efforts have uncovered numerous novel AML-associated mutations. Interestingly, a substantial fraction of the most frequently mutated genes encode general regulators of transcription and chromatin state. Understanding the selective advantage conferred by these mutations remains a major challenge. A striking example are mutations in genes of the cohesin complex, a major regulator of three-dimensional genome organization. Several landmark studies have shown that cohesin mutations perturb the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). Emerging data now begin to uncover the molecular mechanisms that underpin this phenotype. Among these mechanisms is a role for cohesin in the control of inflammatory responses in HSPCs and myeloid cells. Inflammatory signals limit HSPC self-renewal and drive HSPC differentiation. Consistent with this, cohesin mutations promote resistance to inflammatory signals, and may provide a selective advantage for AML progression. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding cohesin mutations in AML, and speculate whether vulnerabilities associated with these mutations could be exploited therapeutically.
Cuartero S, Weiss FD, Dharmalingam G, Guo Y, Ing-Simmons E, Masella S, Robles-Rebollo I, Xiao X, Wang YF, Barozzi I, Djeghloul D, Amano MT, Niskanen H, Petretto E, Dowell RD, Tachibana K, Kaikkonen MU, Nasmyth KA, Lenhard B, Natoli G, Fisher AG, Merkenschlager M
Control of inducible gene expression links cohesin to hematopoietic progenitor self-renewal and differentiation.
Nat ImmunolSep 2018, 19(9)932-941. Epub 20 Aug 2018
Cohesin is important for 3D genome organization. Nevertheless, even the complete removal of cohesin has surprisingly little impact on steady-state gene transcription and enhancer activity. Here we show that cohesin is required for the core transcriptional response of primary macrophages to microbial signals, and for inducible enhancer activity that underpins inflammatory gene expression. Consistent with a role for inflammatory signals in promoting myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPSCs), cohesin mutations in HSPCs led to reduced inflammatory gene expression and increased resistance to differentiation-inducing inflammatory stimuli. These findings uncover an unexpected dependence of inducible gene expression on cohesin, link cohesin with myeloid differentiation, and may help explain the prevalence of cohesin mutations in human acute myeloid leukemia.
Three-dimensional genome organization in normal and malignant haematopoiesis.
Curr Opin HematolJul 2018, 25(4)323-328.
The three-dimensional organization of the genome inside the nucleus impacts on key aspects of genome function, including transcription, DNA replication and repair. The chromosome maintenance complex cohesin and the DNA binding protein CTCF cooperate to drive the formation of self-interacting topological domains. This facilitates transcriptional regulation via enhancer-promoter interactions, controls the distribution and release of torsional strain, and affects the frequency with which particular translocations arise, based on the spatial proximity of translocation partners. Here we discuss recent insights into the mechanisms of three-dimensional genome organization, their relationship to haematopoietic differentiation and malignant transformation.
The insulator protein CTCF regulates Drosophila steroidogenesis.
Biol Open15 May 2015, 4(7)852-7. Epub 15 May 2015
The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. In this report we show that CTCF expression in the prothoracic gland is required for full transcriptional activation of the Halloween genes spookier, shadow and noppera-bo, which encode ecdysone biosynthetic enzymes, and for proper timing of ecdysone-responsive gene expression. Loss of CTCF results in delayed and less synchronized larval development that can only be rescued by feeding larvae with both, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and cholesterol. Moreover, CTCF-knockdown in prothoracic gland cells leads to increased lipid accumulation. In conclusion, the insulator protein CTCF is required for Halloween gene expression and cholesterol homeostasis in ecdysone-producing cells controlling steroidogenesis.
Cuartero S, Fresán U, Reina O, Planet E, Espinàs ML
Ibf1 and Ibf2 are novel CP190-interacting proteins required for insulator function.
EMBO J18 Mar 2014, 33(6)637-47. Epub 6 Feb 2014
Insulators are DNA-protein complexes that play a central role in chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. In Drosophila different proteins, dCTCF, Su(Hw), and BEAF bind to specific subsets of insulators most of them having in common CP190. It has been shown that there are a number of CP190-binding sites that are not shared with any other known insulator protein, suggesting that other proteins could cooperate with CP190 to regulate insulator activity. Here we report on the identification of two previously uncharacterized proteins as CP190-interacting proteins, that we have named Ibf1 and Ibf2. These proteins localize at insulator bodies and associate with chromatin at CP190-binding sites throughout the genome. We also show that Ibf1 and Ibf2 are DNA-binding proteins that form hetero-oligomers that mediate CP190 binding to chromatin. Moreover, Ibf1 and Ibf2 are necessary for insulator activity in enhancer-blocking assays and Ibf2 null mutation cause a homeotic phenotype. Taken together our data reveal a novel pathway of CP190 recruitment to chromatin that is required for insulator activity.