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Im A, Rashidi A, Wang T, Hemmer M, MacMillan ML, Pidala J, Jagasia M, Pavletic S, Majhail NS, Weisdorf D, Abdel-Azim H, Agrawal V, Al-Homsi AS, Aljurf M, Askar M, Auletta JJ, Bashey A, Beitinjaneh A, Bhatt VR, Byrne M, Cahn JY, Cairo M, Castillo P, Cerny J, Chhabra S, Choe H, Ciurea S, Daly A, Perez MAD, Farhadfar N, Gadalla SM, Gale R, Ganguly S, Gergis U, Hanna R, Hematti P, Herzig R, Hildebrandt GC, Lad DP, Lee C, Lehmann L, Lekakis L, Kamble RT, Kharfan-Dabaja MA, Khandelwal P, Martino R, Murthy HS, Nishihori T, O'Brien TA, Olsson RF, Patel SS, Perales MA, Prestidge T, Qayed M, Romee R, Schoemans H, Seo S, Sharma A, Solh M, Strair R, Teshima T, Urbano-Ispizua A, Van der Poel M, Vij R, Wagner JL, William B, Wirk B, Yared JA, Spellman SR, Arora M, Hamilton BK

Risk Factors for Graft-versus-Host Disease in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 17 May 2020, . Epub 17 May 2020
Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has significantly increased the successful use of haploidentical donors with relatively low incidence of GVHD. Given its increasing use, we sought to determine risk factors for GVHD after haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haploHCT) using PTCy. Data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research on adult patients with AML, ALL, MDS, or CML who underwent PTCy-based haploHCT (2013-2016) were analyzed and categorized into 4 groups based on myeloablative (MA) or reduced intensity (RIC) conditioning and bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) graft source. 646 patients were identified (MA-BM = 79, MA-PB = 183, RIC-BM = 192, RIC-PB = 192). The incidence of grade 2-4 aGVHD at 6 months was highest in MA-PB (44%), followed by RIC-PB (36%), MA-BM (36%), and RIC-BM (30%) (p=0.002). The incidence of chronic GVHD at 1 year was 40%, 34%, 24%, and 20%, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, there was no impact of stem cell source or conditioning regimen on grade 2-4 acute GVHD; however, older donor age (30-49 versus <29 years) was significantly associated with higher rates of grade 2-4 acute GVHD (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.12, p=0.01). In contrast, PB compared to BM as a stem cell source was a significant risk factor for the development of chronic GVHD (HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.11-2.62, p=0.01) in the RIC setting. There were no differences in relapse or overall survival between groups. Donor age and graft source are risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD, respectively, after PTCy-based haploHCT.  Our results indicate that in RIC haploHCT, the risk of chronic GVHD is higher with PB stem cells, without any difference in relapse or overall survival.
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