Godoy-Tena G, Barmada A, Morante-Palacios O, de la Calle-Fabregat C, Martins-Ferreira R, Ferreté-Bonastre AG, Ciudad L, Ruiz-Sanmartín A, Martínez-Gallo M, Ferrer R, Ruiz-Rodriguez JC, Rodríguez-Ubreva J, Vento-Tormo R, Ballestar E
Epigenetic and transcriptomic reprogramming in monocytes of severe COVID-19 patients reflects alterations in myeloid differentiation and the influence of inflammatory cytokines.
Genome Med29 Nov 2022, 14(1)134. Epub 29 Nov 2022
COVID-19 manifests with a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, ranging from asymptomatic and mild to severe and critical. Severe and critical COVID-19 patients are characterized by marked changes in the myeloid compartment, especially monocytes. However, little is known about the epigenetic alterations that occur in these cells during hyperinflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients.
Giulia Maggioni, Matteo Bersanelli, Erica Travaglino, Ana Alfonso Piérola, Annika Kasprzak, Arnan Sangerman Montserrat, Elisabetta Sauta, Claudia Sala, Tommaso Matteuzzi, Manja Meggendorfer, Matteo Gnocchi, Lin-Pierre Zhao, Cristina Astrid Tentori, Kathrin Nachtkamp, Daniele Dall'Olio, Ettore Mosca, Marta Ubezio, Alessia Campagna, Antonio Russo, Giulia Rivoli, Massimo Bernardi, Lorenza Borin, Maria Teresa Voso, Marta Riva, Esther Natalie Oliva, Matteo Zampini, Elena Riva, Elena Saba, Saverio D'Amico, Luca Lanino, Benedetta Tinterri, Francesca Re, Marilena Bicchieri, Laura Giordano, Giovanni Angelotti, Pierandrea Morandini, Anne Sophie Kubasch, Francesco Passamonti, Alessandro Rambaldi, Victor Savevski, Armando Santoro, Arjan A van de Loosdrecht, Alice Brogi, Valeria Santini, Shahram Kordasti, Guillermo Sanz, Francesc Sole, Norbert Gattermann, Wolfgang Kern, Uwe Platzbecker, Lionel Ades, Pierre Fenaux, Torsten Haferlach, Gastone Castellani, Ulrich Germing, Maria Diez-Campelo, Matteo G Della Porta.
A sex-informed approach to improve the personalised decision making process in myelodysplastic syndromes: a multicentre, observational cohort study.
The Lancet Haematology24 Nov 2022, . Epub 24 Nov 2022
Sex is a major source of diversity among patients and a sex-informed approach is becoming a new paradigm in precision medicine. We aimed to describe sex diversity in myelodysplastic syndromes in terms of disease genotype, phenotype, and clinical outcome. Moreover, we sought to incorporate sex information into the clinical decision-making process as a fundamental component of patient individuality.
Myelodysplastic Syndromes with Isolated del(5q): Value of Molecular Alterations for Diagnostic and Prognostic Assessment
Cancers10 Nov 2022, .
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal hematological neoplasms characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis in one or more bone marrow cell lineages. Consequently, patients present with variable degrees of cytopenia and dysplasia. These characteristics constitute the basis for the World Health Organization (WHO) classification criteria of MDS, among other parameters, for the current prognostic scoring system. Although nearly half of newly diagnosed patients present a cytogenetic alteration, and almost 90% of them harbor at least one somatic mutation, MDS with isolated del(5q) constitutes the only subtype clearly defined by a cytogenetic alteration. The results of several clinical studies and the advances of new technologies have allowed a better understanding of the biological basis of this disease. Therefore, since the first report of the “5q- syndrome” in 1974, changes and refinements have been made in the definition and the characteristics of the patients with MDS and del(5q). Moreover, specific genetic alterations have been found to be associated with the prognosis and response to treatments. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the molecular background of MDS with isolated del(5q), focusing on the clinical and prognostic relevance of cytogenetic alterations and somatic mutations.
Mehmet Akdel, Douglas E. V. Pires, Eduard Porta Pardo, Jürgen Jänes, Arthur O. Zalevsky, Bálint Mészáros, Patrick Bryant, Lydia L. Good, Roman A. Laskowski, Gabriele Pozzati, Aditi Shenoy, Wensi Zhu, Petras Kundrotas, Victoria Ruiz Serra, Carlos H. M. Rodrigues, Alistair S. Dunham, David Burke, Neera Borkakoti, Sameer Velankar, Adam Frost, Jérôme Basquin, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen, Alex Bateman, Andrey V. Kajava, Alfonso Valencia, Sergey Ovchinnikov, Janani Durairaj, David B. Ascher, Janet M. Thornton, Norman E. Davey, Amelie Stein, Arne Elofsson, Tristan I. Croll & Pedro Beltrao
A structural biology community assessment of AlphaFold2 applications
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology7 Nov 2022, .
Most proteins fold into 3D structures that determine how they function and orchestrate the biological processes of the cell. Recent developments in computational methods for protein structure predictions have reached the accuracy of experimentally determined models. Although this has been independently verified, the implementation of these methods across structural-biology applications remains to be tested. Here, we evaluate the use of AlphaFold2 (AF2) predictions in the study of characteristic structural elements; the impact of missense variants; function and ligand binding site predictions; modeling of interactions; and modeling of experimental structural data. For 11 proteomes, an average of 25% additional residues can be confidently modeled when compared with homology modeling, identifying structural features rarely seen in the Protein Data Bank. AF2-based predictions of protein disorder and complexes surpass dedicated tools, and AF2 models can be used across diverse applications equally well compared with experimentally determined structures, when the confidence metrics are critically considered. In summary, we find that these advances are likely to have a transformative impact in structural biology and broader life-science research.
González-Gil C, Morgades M, Lopes T, Fuster-Tormo F, García-Chica J, Zhao R, Montesinos P, Torrent A, Diaz-Beya M, Coll R, Hermosín L, Mercadal S, González-Campos J, Zamora L, Artola T, Vall-Llovera F, Tormo M, Gil-Cortés C, Barba P, Novo A, Ribera J, Bernal T, De Ugarriza PL, Queipo MP, Martínez-Sánchez P, Giménez A, González-Martínez T, Cladera A, Cervera J, Fernández-Martín R, Ardaiz MÁ, Vidal MJ, Baena Á, López-Bigas N, Bigas A, Maciejewski J, Orfao A, Ribera JM, Genescà E
Genomics improves risk stratification of adults with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients enrolled in measurable residual disease-oriented trials.
Haematologica3 Nov 2022, . Epub 3 Nov 2022
Genetic information has been crucial to understand the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) at diagnosis and at relapse, but still nowadays has a limited value in a clinical context. Few genetic markers are associated with the outcome of T-ALL patients, independently of measurable residual disease (MRD) status after therapy. In addition, the prognostic relevance of genetic features may be modulated by the specific treatment used. We analyzed the genetic profile of 145 T-ALL patients by targeted deep sequencing. Genomic information was integrated with the clinical-biological and survival data of a subset of 116 adult patients enrolled in two consecutive MRD-oriented trials of the Spanish PETHEMA (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología) group. Genetic analysis revealed a mutational profile defined by DNMT3A/ N/KRAS/ MSH2/ U2AF1 gene mutations that identified refractory/resistant patients. Mutations in the DMNT3A gene were also found in the nonleukemic cell fraction of patients with T-ALL, revealing a possible mutational-driven clonal hematopoiesis event to prime T-ALL in elderly. The prognostic impact of this adverse genetic profile was independent of MRD status on day +35 of induction therapy. The combined WOG signature and MRD on day +35 allowed risk-stratification of T-ALL into standard or high-risk groups with significantly different 5-year overall survival (OS) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 52% (37-67 %) and 17% (1-33%), respectively. These results confirm the relevance of the tumor genetic profile in predicting patient outcome in adult T-ALL and highlight the need for novel gene-targeted chemotherapeutic schedules to improve the OS of poor-prognosis T-ALL patients.
Marguerite-Marie Le Pannérer, Jeannine Diesch, Raquel Casquero, Michael Maher, Olga Garcia, Torsten Haferlach, Johannes Zuber, Andrea Kündgen, Katharina Götze, Marcus Buschbeck
Different Gene Sets Are Associated With Azacitidine Response In Vitro Versus in Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients
HemaSphere1 Nov 2022, 6(11) .
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic disorders characterized by dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis, and predisposition to secondary acute myeloid leukemias (sAML). Azacitidine (AZA) is the standard care for high-risk MDS patients not eligible for allogenic bone marrow transplantation. However, only half of the patients respond to AZA and eventually all patients relapse. Response-predicting biomarkers and combinatorial drugs targets enhancing therapy response and its duration are needed. Here, we have taken a dual approach. First, we have evaluated genes encoding chromatin regulators for their capacity to modulate AZA response. We were able to validate several genes, whose genetic inhibition affected the cellular AZA response, including 4 genes encoding components of Imitation SWItch chromatin remodeling complex pointing toward a specific function and co-vulnerability. Second, we have used a classical cohort analysis approach measuring the expression of a gene panel in bone marrow samples from 36 MDS patients subsequently receiving AZA. The gene panel included the identified AZA modulators, genes known to be involved in AZA metabolism and previously identified candidate modulators. In addition to confirming a number of previously made observations, we were able to identify several new associations, such as NSUN3 that correlated with increased overall survival. Taken together, we have identified a number of genes associated with AZA response in vitro and in patients. These groups of genes are largely nonoverlapping suggesting that different gene sets need to be exploited for the development of combinatorial drug targets and response-predicting biomarkers.
Morante-Palacios O, Godoy-Tena G, Calafell-Segura J, Ciudad L, Martínez-Cáceres EM, Sardina JL, Ballestar E
Vitamin C enhances NF-κB-driven epigenomic reprogramming and boosts the immunogenic properties of dendritic cells.
Nucleic Acids Res28 Oct 2022, . Epub 28 Oct 2022
Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen-presenting cells, are necessary for effective activation of naïve T cells. DCs' immunological properties are modulated in response to various stimuli. Active DNA demethylation is crucial for DC differentiation and function. Vitamin C, a known cofactor of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes, drives active demethylation. Vitamin C has recently emerged as a promising adjuvant for several types of cancer; however, its effects on human immune cells are poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the epigenomic and transcriptomic reprogramming orchestrated by vitamin C in monocyte-derived DC differentiation and maturation. Vitamin C triggers extensive demethylation at NF-κB/p65 binding sites, together with concordant upregulation of antigen-presentation and immune response-related genes during DC maturation. p65 interacts with TET2 and mediates the aforementioned vitamin C-mediated changes, as demonstrated by pharmacological inhibition. Moreover, vitamin C increases TNFβ production in DCs through NF-κB, in concordance with the upregulation of its coding gene and the demethylation of adjacent CpGs. Finally, vitamin C enhances DC's ability to stimulate the proliferation of autologous antigen-specific T cells. We propose that vitamin C could potentially improve monocyte-derived DC-based cell therapies.
Eric J Duncavage, Adam Bagg, Robert P Hasserjian, Courtney D DiNardo, Lucy A Godley, Ilaria Iacobucci, Siddhartha Jaiswal, Luca Malcovati, Alessandro M Vannucchi 9, Keyur P Patel, Daniel A Arber, Maria E Arcila, Rafael Bejar, Nancy Berliner, Michael J Borowitz, Susan Branford, Anna L Brown, Catherine A Cargo, Hartmut Döhner, Brunangelo Falini, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Torsten Haferlach, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Annette S Kim, Jeffery M Klco, Rami S Komrokji, Mignon L Loh, Sanam Loghavi, Charles G Mullighan, Seishi Ogawa, Ayalew Tefferi, Elli Papaemmanuil, Andreas Reiter, David Morrall Ross, Michael R Savona, Akiko Shimamura, Radek C Skoda, Francesc Sole, Richard M Stone, Attilio Orazi, Matthew J Walter, David Wu, Benjamin L Ebert, Mario Cazzola
Genomic Profiling for Clinical Decision Making in Myeloid Neoplasms and Acute Leukemia
Blood21 Sep 2022, .
Myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias derive from the clonal expansion of hematopoietic cells driven by somatic gene mutations. While assessment of morphology plays a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with these malignancies, genomic characterization has become increasingly important for accurate diagnosis, risk assessment, and therapeutic decision making. Conventional cytogenetics, a comprehensive and unbiased method for assessing chromosomal abnormalities, has been the mainstay of genomic testing over the last several decades and remains relevant today. However, more recent advances in sequencing technology have increased our ability to detect somatic mutations through the use of targeted gene panels, whole exome sequencing (WES), whole genome sequencing (WGS), and whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) or RNAseq. In patients with myeloid neoplasms, whole-genome sequencing represents a potential replacement for both conventional cytogenetic and sequencing approaches, providing rapid and accurate comprehensive genomic profiling. DNA sequencing methods are employed not only for detecting somatically acquired gene mutations, but also for identifying germline gene mutations associated with inherited predisposition to hematologic neoplasms. The 2022 International Consensus Classification (ICC) of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias makes extensive use of genomic data. This report aims to help physicians and laboratorians implement genomic testing for diagnosis, risk stratification, and clinical decision making and illustrates the potential of genomic profiling for enabling personalized medicine in patients with these hematologic neoplasms.
Three-dimensional genome organization in immune cell fate and function.
Nat Rev Immunol20 Sep 2022, . Epub 20 Sep 2022
Immune cell development and activation demand the precise and coordinated control of transcriptional programmes. Three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome has emerged as an important regulator of chromatin state, transcriptional activity and cell identity by facilitating or impeding long-range genomic interactions among regulatory elements and genes. Chromatin folding thus enables cell type-specific and stimulus-specific transcriptional responses to extracellular signals, which are essential for the control of immune cell fate, for inflammatory responses and for generating a diverse repertoire of antigen receptor specificities. Here, we review recent findings connecting 3D genome organization to the control of immune cell differentiation and function, and discuss how alterations in genome folding may lead to immune dysfunction and malignancy.
Plana-Carmona M, Stik G, Bulteau R, Segura-Morales C, Alcázar N, Wyatt CDR, Klonizakis A, de Andrés-Aguayo L, Gasnier M, Tian TV, Torcal Garcia G, Vila-Casadesús M, Plachta N, Serrano M, Francesconi M, Graf T
The trophectoderm acts as a niche for the inner cell mass through C/EBPα-regulated IL-6 signaling.
Stem Cell Reports13 Sep 2022, 17(9)1991-2004. Epub 11 Aug 2022
IL-6 has been shown to be required for somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, how Il6 expression is regulated and whether it plays a role during embryo development remains unknown. Here, we describe that IL-6 is necessary for C/EBPα-enhanced reprogramming of B cells into iPSCs but not for B cell to macrophage transdifferentiation. C/EBPα overexpression activates both Il6 and Il6ra genes in B cells and in PSCs. In embryo development, Cebpa is enriched in the trophectoderm of blastocysts together with Il6, while Il6ra is mostly expressed in the inner cell mass (ICM). In addition, Il6 expression in blastocysts requires Cebpa. Blastocysts secrete IL-6 and neutralization of the cytokine delays the morula to blastocyst transition. The observed requirement of C/EBPα-regulated IL-6 signaling for pluripotency during somatic cell reprogramming thus recapitulates a physiologic mechanism in which the trophectoderm acts as niche for the ICM through the secretion of IL-6.