Ferroptosis is a form of cell death triggered by phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH) generated from the iron-dependent oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To prevent ferroptosis, cells rely on the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which serves as cofactor of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) for the neutralization of PLOOHs. Some cancer cells can also limit ferroptosis through a GSH-independent axis, centered mainly on the ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (FSP1). The significance of these two anti-ferroptosis pathways is still poorly understood in cancers from hematopoietic origin. Here, we report that blood-derived cancer cells are selectively sensitive to compounds that block the GSH-dependent anti-ferroptosis axis. In T and B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines and patient biopsies, the promoter of the gene coding for FSP1 is hypermethylated, silencing the expression of FSP1 and creating a selective dependency on GSH-centered anti-ferroptosis defenses. In-trans expression of FSP1 increases the resistance of leukemic cells to compounds targeting the GSH-dependent anti-ferroptosis pathway. FSP1 over-expression also favors ALL-tumor growth in an in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Hence, our results reveal a metabolic vulnerability of ALL that might be of therapeutic interest.
Saumell S, Fernández-Serrano M, Mesa A, López-Cadenas F, Arenillas L, Alfonso A, Montoro MJ, Molero A, Leoz P, Riego V, Gallur L, Salamero O, Navarrete M, Tazón-Vega B, Ortega M, Reig Ò, Roué G, Calvo X, Prosper F, Díez-Campelo M, Valcárcel D
Prognostic impact of micromegakaryocytes in primary myelodysplastic syndromes.
Leuk LymphomaMai 2022, 63(5)1227-1235. Epub 31 Des 2021
Micromegakaryocytes (microMKs) are considered a myelodysplastic feature of myeloid neoplasms in adults, with an adverse prognosis connotation. However, this notion in MDS has not been well proved. In our cohort of 287 MDS, patients with microMKs showed lower overall survival (OS) (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.47-3.06;
Montagut AM, Armengol M, de Pablo GG, Estrada-Tejedor R, Borrell JI, Roué G
Recent advances in the pharmacological targeting of ubiquitin-regulating enzymes in cancer.
Semin Cell Dev Biol17 Feb 2022, . Epub 17 Feb 2022
As a post-translational modification that has pivotal roles in protein degradation, ubiquitination ensures that intracellular proteins act in a precise spatial and temporal manner to regulate diversified cellular processes. Perturbation of the ubiquitin system contributes directly to the onset and progression of a wide variety of diseases, including various subtypes of cancer. This highly regulated system has been for years an active research area for drug discovery that is exemplified by several approved drugs. In this review, we will provide an update of the main breakthrough scientific discoveries that have been leading the clinical development of ubiquitin-targeting therapies in the last decade, with a special focus on E1 and E3 modulators. We will further discuss the unique challenges of identifying new potential therapeutic targets within this ubiquitous and highly complex machinery, based on available crystallographic structures, and explore chemical approaches by which these challenges might be met.
Quinet, Grégoire, Wendy Xolalpa, Diana Reyes-Garau, Núria Profitós-Pelejà, Mikel Azkargorta, Laurie Ceccato, Maria Gonzalez-Santamarta, Maria Marsal, Jordi Andilla, Fabienne Aillet, Francesc Bosch, Felix Elortza, Pablo Loza-Alvarez, Brigitte Sola, Olivier Coux, Rune Matthiesen, Gaël Roué, Manuel S. Rodríguez.
Constitutive Activation of p62/Sequestosome-1-Mediated Proteaphagy Regulates Proteolysis and Impairs Cell Death in Bortezomib-Resistant Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Cancers 2022,12 Feb 2022, 14(4)923. Epub 12 Feb 2022
Protein ubiquitylation coordinates crucial cellular events in physiological and pathological conditions. A comparative analysis of the ubiquitin proteome from bortezomib (BTZ)-sensitive and BTZ-resistant mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) revealed an enrichment of the autophagy–lysosome system (ALS) in BTZ-resistant cells. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy at the level of lysosome-fusion revealed a constitutive activation of proteaphagy and accumulation of proteasome subunits within autophagosomes in different MCL cell lines with acquired or natural resistance to BTZ. Inhibition of the autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1 upon verteporfin (VTP) treatment disrupted proteaphagosome assembly, reduced co-localization of proteasome subunits with autophagy markers and negatively impacted proteasome activity. Finally, the silencing or pharmacological inhibition of p62 restored the apoptosis threshold at physiological levels in BTZ-resistant cells both in vitro and in vivo. In total, these results demonstrate for the first time a proteolytic switch from the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) to ALS in B-cell lymphoma refractory to proteasome inhibition, pointing out a crucial role for proteaphagy in this phenomenon and paving the way for the design of alternative therapeutic venues in treatment-resistant tumors.
Profitós-Pelejà, Núria, Juliana C. Santos, Ana Marín-Niebla, Gaël Roué, Marcelo L. Ribeiro
Regulation of B-Cell Receptor Signaling and Its Therapeutic Relevance in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas
Cancers 20229 Feb 2022, 14(4)860. Epub 9 Feb 2022
The proliferation and survival signals emanating from the B-cell receptor (BCR) constitute a crucial aspect of mature lymphocyte’s life. Dysregulated BCR signaling is considered a potent contributor to tumor survival in different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs). In the last decade, the emergence of BCR-associated kinases as rational therapeutic targets has led to the development and approval of several small molecule inhibitors targeting either Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), or phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), offering alternative treatment options to standard chemoimmunotherapy, and making some of these drugs valuable assets in the anti-lymphoma armamentarium. Despite their initial effectiveness, these precision medicine strategies are limited by primary resistance in aggressive B-cell lymphoma such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), especially in the case of first generation BTK inhibitors. In these patients, BCR-targeting drugs often fail to produce durable responses, and nearly all cases eventually progress with a dismal outcome, due to secondary resistance. This review will discuss our current understanding of the role of antigen-dependent and antigen-independent BCR signaling in DLBCL and MCL and will cover both approved inhibitors and investigational molecules being evaluated in early preclinical studies. We will discuss how the mechanisms of action of these molecules, and their off/on-target effects can influence their effectiveness and lead to toxicity, and how our actual knowledge supports the development of more specific inhibitors and new, rationally based, combination therapies, for the management of MCL and DLBCL patients.
Fernández-Serrano M, Winkler R, Santos JC, Le Pannérer MM, Buschbeck M, Roué G
Histone Modifications and Their Targeting in Lymphoid Malignancies.
Int J Mol Sci27 Des 2021, 23(1) . Epub 27 Des 2021
In a wide range of lymphoid neoplasms, the process of malignant transformation is associated with somatic mutations in B cells that affect the epigenetic machinery. Consequential alterations in histone modifications contribute to disease-specific changes in the transcriptional program. Affected genes commonly play important roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis-inducing signal transduction, and DNA damage response, thus facilitating the emergence of malignant traits that impair immune surveillance and favor the emergence of different B-cell lymphoma subtypes. In the last two decades, the field has made a major effort to develop therapies that target these epigenetic alterations. In this review, we discuss which epigenetic alterations occur in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Furthermore, we aim to present in a close to comprehensive manner the current state-of-the-art in the preclinical and clinical development of epigenetic drugs. We focus on therapeutic strategies interfering with histone methylation and acetylation as these are most advanced in being deployed from the bench-to-bedside and have the greatest potential to improve the prognosis of lymphoma patients.
Ribeiro ML, Reyes-Garau D, Vinyoles M, Profitos-Peleja N, Santos JC, Armengol M, Fernández-Serrano M, Sedo Mor A, Bech-Serra JJ, Blecua P, Musulen E, De La Torre C, Miskin HP, Esteller M, Bosch F, Menéndez P, Normant E, Roué G
Antitumor activity of the novel BTK inhibitor TG-1701 is associated with disruption of Ikaros signaling in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res2 Des 2021, . Epub 22 Set 2021
Purpose: Despite the remarkable activity of BTK inhibitors (BTKi) in relapsed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), no clinically-relevant biomarker has been associated to these agents so far. The relevance of phosphoproteomic profiling for the early identification of BTKi responders remains underexplored.
Experimental design: A set of six clinical samples from an ongoing phase 1 trial dosing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients with TG-1701, a novel irreversible and highly specific BTKi, were characterized by phosphoproteomic and RNA-seq analysis. The activity of TG-1701 was evaluated in a panel of eleven B-NHL cell lines and mouse xenografts, including two NFκB- and BTKC481S-driven BTKi resistant models. Biomarker validation and signal transduction analysis were conducted through real-time PCR, western blot, immunostaining and gene knock-out (KO) experiments.
Results: A non-supervised, phosphoproteomic-based clustering did match the early clinical outcomes of CLL patients and separated a group of "early-responders" from a group of "late-responders". This clustering was based on a selected list of 96 phosphosites with Ikaros-pSer442/445 as a potential biomarker for TG-1701 efficacy. TG-1701 treatment was further shown to blunt Ikaros gene signature, including YES1 and MYC, in early-responder patients as well as in BTKi-sensitive B-NHL cell lines and xenografts. In contrast, Ikaros nuclear activity and signaling remained unaffected by the drug in vitro and in vivo, in late-responder patients and in BTKC481S, BTKKO and non-canonical NFκB models.
Conclusions: These data validate phosphoproteomic as a valuable tool for the early detection of response to BTK inhibition in the clinic, and for the determination of drug mechanism of action.
Galindo-Campos MA, Lutfi N, Bonnin S, Martínez C, Velasco-Hernandez T, García-Hernández V, Martin-Caballero J, Ampurdanés C, Gimeno R, Colomo L, Roue G, Guilbaud G, Dantzer F, Navarro P, Murga M, Fernandez-Capetillo O, Bigas A, Menendez P, Sale J, Yélamos J
Distinct roles for PARP-1 and PARP-2 in c-Myc-driven B-cell lymphoma in mice.
Blood6 Ago 2021, . Epub 6 Ago 2021
Dysregulation of the c-Myc oncogene occurs in a wide variety of haematologic malignancies and its overexpression has been linked with aggressive tumour progression. Here, we show that Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and PARP-2 exert opposing influences on progression of c-Myc-driven B-cell lymphomas. PARP-1 and PARP-2 catalyse the synthesis and transfer of ADP-ribose units onto amino acid residues of acceptor proteins in response to DNA-strand breaks, playing a central role in the response to DNA damage. Accordingly, PARP inhibitors have emerged as promising new cancer therapeutics. However, the inhibitors currently available for clinical use are not able to discriminate between individual PARP proteins. We found that genetic deletion of PARP-2 prevents c-Myc-driven B-cell lymphomas, while PARP-1-deficiency accelerates lymphomagenesis in the Em-Myc mouse model of aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Loss of PARP-2 aggravates replication stress in pre-leukemic Em-Myc B cells resulting in accumulation of DNA damage and concomitant cell death that restricts the c-Myc-driven expansion of B cells, thereby providing protection against B-cell lymphoma. In contrast, PARP-1-deficiency induces a proinflammatory response, and an increase in regulatory T cells likely contributing to immune escape of B-cell lymphomas, resulting in an acceleration of lymphomagenesis. These findings pinpoint specific functions for PARP-1 and PARP-2 in c-Myc-driven lymphomagenesis with antagonistic consequences that may help inform the design of new PARP-centred therapeutic strategies with selective PARP-2 inhibition potentially representing a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of c-Myc-driven tumours.
Dlouhy I, Armengol M, Recasens-Zorzo C, Ribeiro ML, Pérez-Galán P, Bosch F, López-Guillermo A, Roué G
Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 1/4 and bromodomain and extraterminal inhibitions converge on NF-κB blockade and display synergistic antitumoral activity in activated B-cell subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with
Marc Armengol, Juliana Carvalho Santos, Miranda Fernández-Serrano, Núria Profitós-Pelejà, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro, Gaël Roué
Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in B-Cell Lymphoma
Cancers 2021, 13(2), 2148 Gen 2021, .
For years, immunotherapy has been considered a viable and attractive treatment option for patients with cancer. Among the immunotherapy arsenal, the targeting of intratumoral immune cells by immune-checkpoint inhibitory agents has recently revolutionised the treatment of several subtypes of tumours. These approaches, aimed at restoring an effective antitumour immunity, rapidly reached the market thanks to the simultaneous identification of inhibitory signals that dampen an effective antitumor response in a large variety of neoplastic cells and the clinical development of monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoint receptors. Leading therapies in solid tumours are mainly focused on the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathways. These approaches have found a promising testing ground in both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, mainly because, in these diseases, the malignant cells interact with the immune system and commonly provide signals that regulate immune function. Although several trials have already demonstrated evidence of therapeutic activity with some checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma, many of the immunologic lessons learned from solid tumours may not directly translate to lymphoid malignancies. In this sense, the mechanisms of effective antitumor responses are different between the different lymphoma subtypes, while the reasons for this substantial difference remain partially unknown. This review will discuss the current advances of immune-checkpoint blockade therapies in B-cell lymphoma and build a projection of how the field may evolve in the near future. In particular, we will analyse the current strategies being evaluated both preclinically and clinically, with the aim of fostering the use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma, including combination approaches with chemotherapeutics, biological agents and/or different immunologic therapies.