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Nicolle D, Fabre M, Simon-Coma M, Gorse A, Kappler R, Nonell L, Mallo M, Haidar H, Déas O, Mussini C, Guettier C, Redon MJ, Brugières L, Rosa Ghigna M, Fadel E, Galmiche-Rolland L, Chardot C, Judde JG, Armengol C, Branchereau S, Cairo S

Patient-derived xenografts from pediatric liver cancer predict tumor recurrence and advise clinical management.

Hepatology 26 Apr 2016, . Epub 26 Apr 2016
Identification of new treatments for relapsing pediatric cancer is an unmet clinical need and a societal challenge. Liver cancer occurrence in infancy, 1.5 for million children per year, falls far below the threshold of interest for dedicated drug development programs, and this disease is so rare that it is very difficult to gather enough children into a phase II clinical trial. Here, we present the establishment of an unprecedented preclinical platform of 24 pediatric liver cancer patient-derived xenografts (PLC-PDXs) from 20 hepatoblastomas, 1 transitional liver cell tumor, 1 hepatocellular carcinoma and 2 malignant rhabdoid tumors. Cytogenetic array and mutational analysis of the parental tumors and the corresponding PLC-PDXs show high conservation of the molecular features of the parental tumors. The histology of PLC-PDXs is strikingly similar to that observed in primary tumors, and recapitulates the heterogeneity of recurrent disease observed in the clinic. Tumor growth in the mouse is strongly associated with elevated circulating alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), low rate of necrosis/fibrosis after treatment and gain of chromosome 20, all indicators of resistance to chemotherapy and poor outcome. Accordingly, the ability of a tumor to generate PLC-PDX is predictive of poor prognosis. Exposure of PLC-PDXs to standards of care or therapeutic options already in use for other pediatric malignancies revealed unique response profiles in these models. Among these, the irinotecan/temozolomide combination induced strong tumor regression in the transitional liver cell tumor model and in a model derived from an AFP-negative relapsing HB.
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Barta SK, Joshi J, Mounier N, Xue X, Wang D, Ribera JM, Navarro JT, Hoffmann C, Dunleavy K, Little RF, Wilson WH, Spina M, Galicier L, Noy A, Sparano JA

Central nervous system involvement in AIDS-related lymphomas.

Br. J. Haematol. 7 Apr 2016, . Epub 7 Apr 2016
Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is reportedly more common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphomas (ARL). We describe factors and outcomes associated with CNS involvement at baseline (CNS(B) ) and relapse (CNS(R) ) in 886 patients with newly diagnosed ARL. Of 886 patients, 800 received either intrathecal (IT) therapy for CNS(B) or IT prophylaxis. CNS(B) was found in 13%. CNS(B) was not associated with reduced overall survival (OS). There was no difference in the prevalence of CNS(B) between the pre-combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and cART eras. 5·3% of patients experienced CNS(R) at a median of 4·2 months after diagnosis (12% if CNS(B) ; 4% if not). Median OS after CNS(R) was 1·6 months. On multivariate analysis, only CNS(B) [hazard ratio (HR) 3·68, P = 0·005] and complete response to initial therapy (HR 0·14, P < 0·0001) were significantly associated with CNS(R) . When restricted to patients without CNS(B) , IT CNS prophylaxis with 3 vs. 1 agent did not significantly impact the risk of CNS(R) . Despite IT CNS prophylaxis, 5% of patients experienced CNS(R) . Our data confirms that CNS(R) in ARL occurs early and has a poor outcome. Complete response to initial therapy was associated with a reduced frequency of CNS(R) . Although CNS(B) conferred an increased risk for CNS(R) , it did not impact OS.
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Pachón-Peña G, Serena C, Ejarque M, Petriz J, Duran X, Oliva-Olivera W, Simó R, Tinahones FJ, Fernández-Veledo S, Vendrell J

Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue.

Stem Cells Transl Med Apr 2016, 5 (4) 464-75. Epub 8 Mar 2016
: Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n = 8; body mass index [BMI]: 23 ± 1 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 8; BMI: 35 ± 5 kg/m(2)). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor's BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension.
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Nomdedeu M, Calvo X, Pereira A, Carrió A, Solé F, Luño E, Cervera J, Vallespí T, Muñoz C, Gómez C, Arias A, Such E, Sanz G, Grau J, Insunza A, Calasanz MJ, Ardanaz MT, Hernández-Rivas JM, Azaceta G, Álvarez S, Sánchez J, Martín ML, Bargay J, Gómez V, Cervero CJ, Allegue MJ, Collado R, Campo E, Esteve J, Nomdedeu B, Costa D

Prognostic impact of chromosomal translocations in myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia patients. A study by the spanish group of myelodysplastic syndromes.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer Apr 2016, 55 (4) 322-7. Epub 22 Dec 2015
Chromosomal translocations are rare in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). With the exception of t(3q), translocations are not explicitly considered in the cytogenetic classification of the IPSS-R and their impact on disease progression and patient survival is unknown. The present study was aimed at determining the prognostic impact of translocations in the context of the cytogenetic classification of the IPSS-R. We evaluated 1,653 patients from the Spanish Registry of MDS diagnosed with MDS or CMML and an abnormal karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis. Translocations were identified in 168 patients (T group). Compared with the 1,485 patients with abnormal karyotype without translocations (non-T group), the T group had a larger proportion of patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts and higher scores in both the cytogenetic and global IPSS-R. Translocations were associated with a significantly shorter survival and higher incidence of transformation into AML at univariate analysis but both features disapeared after multivariate adjustment for the IPSS-R cytogenetic category. Patients with single or double translocations other than t(3q) had an outcome similar to those in the non-T group in the intermediate cytogenetic risk category of the IPSS-R. In conclusion, the presence of translocations identifies a subgroup of MDS/CMML patients with a more aggressive clinical presentation that can be explained by a higher incidence of complex karyotypes. Single or double translocations other than t(3q) should be explicitly considered into the intermediate risk category of cytogenetic IPSS-R classification. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Cornet-Masana JM, Moreno-Martínez D, Lara-Castillo MC, Nomdedeu M, Etxabe A, Tesi N, Pratcorona M, Esteve J, Risueño RM

Emetine induces chemosensitivity and reduces clonogenicity of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

Oncotarget 15 Mar 2016, . Epub 15 Mar 2016
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an hematologic neoplasia characterized by the accumulation of transformed immature myeloid cells in bone marrow. Although the response rate to induction therapy is high, survival rate 5-year after diagnosis is still low, highlighting the necessity of new novel agents. To identify agents with the capability to abolish the self-renewal capacity of AML blasts, an in silico screening was performed to search for small molecules that induce terminal differentiation. Emetine, a hit compound, was validated for its anti-leukemic effect in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Emetine, a second-line anti-protozoa drug, differentially reduced cell viability and clonogenic capacity of AML primary patient samples, sparing healthy blood cells. Emetine treatment markedly reduced AML burden in bone marrow of xenotransplanted mice and decreased self-renewal capacity of the remaining engrafted AML cells. Emetine also synergized with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents such as ara-C. At a molecular level, emetine treatment was followed by a reduction in HIF-1α protein levels. This study validated the anti-leukemiceffect of emetine in AML cell lines, a group of diverse AML primary samples, and in a human AML-transplanted murine model, sparing healthy blood cells. The selective anti-leukemic effect of emetine together with the safety of the dose range required to exert this effect support the development of this agent in clinical practice.
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