Acoustophoretic Orientation of Red Blood Cells for Diagnosis of Red Cell Health and Pathology.
Sci Rep24 Oct 2018, 8(1)15705. Epub 24 Oct 2018
Distortions of the normal bi-concave disc shape for red blood cells (RBCs) appear in a number of pathologies resulting from defects in cell membrane skeletal architecture, erythrocyte ageing, and mechanical damage. We present here the potential of acoustic cytometry for developing new approaches to light-scattering based evaluation of red blood cell disorders and of the effects of storage and ageing on changes or damage to RBCs membranes. These approaches could be used to immediately evaluate the quality of erythrocytes prior to blood donation and following transfusion. They could also be applied to studying RBC health in diseases and other pathologies, such as artificial heart valve hemolysis, thermal damage or osmotic fragility. Abnormal distributions of erythrocytes can typically be detected after just 30 to 45 seconds of acquisition time using 1-2 µL starting blood volumes.
No lyse no wash flow cytometry for maximizing minimal sample preparation.
Methods1 Feb 2018, 134-135149-163. Epub 18 Des 2017
Red blood cell lysis is an integral part of many flow cytometry protocols. It's potential to cause artifacts has been known for decades, but lysis free sample preparation has failed to replace lysis in most applications. Studies of various lysing protocols on cell losses and effects on phenotypic markers and cell function began early in the history of immunophenotyping and continue to this day. Opportunities to combine live cell response and functional assessment with phenotyping have sparked increasing interest in no lyse no wash protocols, with minimizing sample preparation effects on the cell biology as the primary goal. No lyse no wash protocols reduce sample handling and are procedurally less complex than lysis protocols, but the impact of keeping intact red blood cells that grossly outnumber the target white blood cells, must be understood to fully take advantage of this simplicity. Presented here are theories and methods for executing and interpreting no lyse no wash assays in whole blood. Methods for distinguishing white blood cells and platelets from red blood cells and improving scatter data by combining 405 nm and 488 nm side scatter are shown. Methods for assessing white blood cell light scattering profiles for individual instruments and sample treatments are discussed within the context of example profiles for no lysis and hypotonic and ammonium chloride lysis treatments. The utility of overcoming no lyse no wash scatter and fluorescence background limitations using alternate scatter and fluorescence thresholding strategies is also discussed in the context of application examples.
Is alkaline phosphatase the smoking gun for highly refractory primitive leukemic cells?
Oncotarget6 Oct 2016, . Epub 6 Oct 2016
With the aim to detect candidate malignant primitive progenitor populations, we modified an original alkaline phosphatase (ALP) stem cell detection method based on the identification of alkaline phosphatase fluorescent cells in combination with flow cytometry immunophenotyping. Over a period of one year, we have been using this technique to study its activity in patients with leukemia and lymphoma, showing that changes in the alkaline phosphatase levels can be used to detect rare populations of highly refractory malignant cells. By screening different blood cancers, we have observed that this activity is not always restricted to CD34+ leukemic cells, and can be overexpressed in CD34 negative leukemia. We have verified that this method gives accurate and reproducible measurements and our preliminary results suggest that CD34+/ALPhigh cells appear to sustain leukemogenesis over time.
Pachón-Peña G, Serena C, Ejarque M, Petriz J, Duran X, Oliva-Olivera W, Simó R, Tinahones FJ, Fernández-Veledo S, Vendrell J
Obesity Determines the Immunophenotypic Profile and Functional Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Adipose Tissue.
Stem Cells Transl MedAbr 2016, 5(4)464-75. Epub 8 Mar 2016
: Adipose tissue is a major source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which possess a variety of properties that make them ideal candidates for regenerative and immunomodulatory therapies. Here, we compared the immunophenotypic profile of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) from lean and obese individuals, and explored its relationship with the apparent altered plasticity of hASCs. We also hypothesized that persistent hypoxia treatment of cultured hASCs may be necessary but not sufficient to drive significant changes in mature adipocytes. hASCs were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy, adult, female donors undergoing abdominal plastic surgery: lean (n = 8; body mass index [BMI]: 23 ± 1 kg/m(2)) and obese (n = 8; BMI: 35 ± 5 kg/m(2)). Cell surface marker expression, proliferation and migration capacity, and adipogenic differentiation potential of cultured hASCs at two different oxygen conditions were studied. Compared with lean-derived hASCs, obese-derived hASCs demonstrated increased proliferation and migration capacity but decreased lipid droplet accumulation, correlating with a higher expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-II and cluster of differentiation (CD) 106 and lower expression of CD29. Of interest, adipogenic differentiation modified CD106, CD49b, HLA-ABC surface protein expression, which was dependent on the donor's BMI. Additionally, low oxygen tension increased proliferation and migration of lean but not obese hASCs, which correlated with an altered CD36 and CD49b immunophenotypic profile. In summary, the differences observed in proliferation, migration, and differentiation capacity in obese hASCs occurred in parallel with changes in cell surface markers, both under basal conditions and during differentiation. Therefore, obesity is an important determinant of stem cell function independent of oxygen tension.
Núñez-Espinosa C, Ferreira I, Ríos-Kristjánsson JG, Rizo-Roca D, García Godoy MD, Rico LG, Rubi-Sans G, Torrella JR, Pagès T, Petriz J, Viscor G
Effects of intermittent hypoxia and light aerobic exercise on circulating stem cells and side population, after strenuous eccentric exercise in trained rats.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther2015, 10(2)132-9.
Our goal was to address if intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) exposure can help to increase the number of peripheral blood circulating progenitor cells and side population (SP) stem cells, in order to establish the usefulness of this intervention for skeletal muscle repair, because these cells play a role in tissue regeneration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in two basal states: untrained and trained and compared with 1, 3, 7 and 14 days stages of damage recovery of trained rats that had suffered skeletal muscle injury. Three experimental groups were studied: rats with passive recovery (CTRL); rats exposed to IHH after muscle damage (HYP); and, trained rats that, in addition to IHH, performed light aerobic exercise sessions (EHYP). We observed an increase in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (mean = 0.153% of cells) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) (mean = 0.0020% of cells) in EHYP on day 7. Also these cells showed characteristics of more primitive progenitors in comparison to the other experimental groups (mean = 0.107% of cells), as deduced by retention of the promising fluorescent probe Vybrant Dye Cycle Violet. We concluded that intermittent exposure to hypobaric hypoxia in combination with light aerobic exercise increased the number of HSCs and EPCs on the 7th day in EHYP group, although the exercise-induced stimulus showed a reverse effect on SP kinetics.
Pizarro S, García-Lucio J, Peinado VI, Tura-Ceide O, Díez M, Blanco I, Sitges M, Petriz J, Torralba Y, Marín P, Roca J, Barberà JA
Circulating progenitor cells and vascular dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
PLoS ONE2014, 9(8)e106163. Epub 29 Ago 2014
In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), decreased progenitor cells and impairment of systemic vascular function have been suggested to confer higher cardiovascular risk. The origin of these changes and their relationship with alterations in the pulmonary circulation are unknown.